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譯文示例2

 

獨弦琴源流探索(摘錄)


一、源于中國

  獨弦琴,這個精巧而又獨特的樂器,是中國、日本、越南三個國家的民族樂器,本是同宗同族,只是叫法不一樣而已。中國古代叫一弦琴、獨弦匏琴、龍首獨弦琴。日本叫一弦琴。越南叫獨弦琴或獨弦匏琴。從有文字記載可追溯到殷代,據《拾遺記》(南朝)載“師延在軒轅之世,為司樂之宮,及殷時,總修三皇五帝之樂。拾一弦琴則地抵皆升。吹玉律則天神俱降!睋缎绿茣份d:“獨弦匏琴,以斑竹為之,不加飾,刻木為達首,張弦天輪,以弦系頂!绷磔d:“復以半的,皆彩畫之,加上銅團,以作為琴,作尷文橫其上,長三尺余,頭曲如拱,長兩寸,以菜系腹穿臣及的木!睆倪@些古籍的記載可以肯定,“獨弦琴”是中國的樂器。并且知道,殷代叫做“一弦琴”,到了盛唐時,加上半邊匏殼來擴大音量,叫做“獨弦匏琴”。彩繪虺紋橫其上,又叫做“龍首獨弦琴”!缎绿茣愤對此樂器的定弦音高和演奏音律作了記載:“它的弦應太簇”“此一弦五音備,閻王一聽以蓄萬邦也!卑垂沤衤芍茡Q算,古代的太“簇”音高等于現代的“D”音!拔逡簟敝傅氖恰皩m、商、角、徽、羽”五個調式音。


the origin of monochord

1. Originated from China

  Monochord, sole and delicate, is a traditional musical instrument prevailed in China, Japan and Vietnam. It is originally homologous but has a varied name in different countries mentioned above. In ancient China it was called Single-chord(yi-xian-qin), gourd-shaped Monochord(du-xian-pao-qin), or Dragon-head Monochord(long-shou-du-xian-qin). And it goes by the name of Single-chord(yi-xian-qin)in Japan all the time, while the name of Monochord(du-xian-qin)or gourd-shaped Monochord(du-xian-pao-qin)is popular in Vietnam. Its recorded history can be traced back to the Shang Dynasty(c. 1600 ~ 1100 BC). As is stated in Up for Omissions(shiyi ji )published in Southern Dynasty(386~589 AD), “Musician Yan was an official being in charge of the administration of music affairs in the age of Xuan-yuan, namely Huang Di, the Supreme Ruler of that ancient China, and by the time of Shang Dynasty some musical officials were assigned as the chiefs to compile the music between the periods of Three Legendary Emperors and the Five Legendary Rulers. …While the wire of Single-chord(yi-xian-qin)being fingered upon, all Gods of the land would always go up into the sky; while a kind of pure temperament being played on a bamboo pitch-pipe, all Gods of the heaven would always go down toward the land.” And another record goes down in the New History of the Tang Dynasty that says gourd-shaped Monochord(du-xian-pao-qin)was made up of mottled bamboo without ornaments, its wood head got carved into snake-shaped head, and its string stringed on the crown of the head without peg. The record also says, “in addition, the half of cut gourd which was decorated with colored drawings and put in the bronze bowl was manufactured into a musical instrument, namely the Qin. Decorated with coiling snake pattern, the Qin was long 100 centimeters or so, its head scrolled as an arch was long 6.66 centimeters, and its string tied its waist by passing from the head through the bronze bowl and half cut gourd.”Hence it is sure accordingly that Monochord(du-xian-qin)originated from ancient China and went by the name of Single-chord(yi-xian-qin)in the Shang Dynasty, gourd-shaped Monochord(du-xian-pao-qin)after putting in the half cut gourd to raise volume, and of Dragon-head Monochord(long-shou-du-xian-qin)after decorated with colored drawing and coiling snake pattern by the heyday of the Tang Dynasty. Furthermore, the tuning pitch and temperament of this instrument also went down in the New History of the Tang Dynasty which states:“its string responds to the Greater Accumulation(tai-cu),”and again, “Although this instrument has one single string, it possesses the five notes of the Chinese pentatonic scale. Its melody is so beautiful as to let the Emperor to promote it to all over the world.”Here, I think it is necessary to explain some special terms. According to the conversion between antique and modern temperament system, ancient Greater Accumulation(tai-cu)pitch equals to present key of “D”and the five notes(wu-yin)indicates five keys of the ancient Chinese pentatonic scale inclusive of “gong, shang, jue, zhi, yu”.

乘車路線:20、65、220、601、603路公交車到葛村東寶路口站下車即到金都大廈。
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